(Origins of Human Communication) Ebook/PDF õ Michael Tomasello
Michael Tomasello psic logo de desenvolvimento e diretor do Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology e apesar da sua investiga o n o ser na Comunica o o seu trabalho e em particular este livro Origins of Human Communication 2008 um contributo fundamental para a compreens o dauilo de ue a Comunica o feita A pergunta de partida muito simples sendo os chimpanz s reconhecidamente t o inteligentes porue ue eles n o falamContinuar a ler Tomasello lays out a very plausible and radical theory of the phylogenetic origins of language in this highly readable and absorbing book This uestion of language s origins has implications for the essential functions of our natural languages the nature of semantic meaning and the social character of our species His theory can show that we are interconnected in a very deep manner that is not evident especially in our contemporary individualistic and materialist scientific culture I will return to this last point after summarizing the key points in the chapters of this book The basic thesis is that our natural languages evolutionarily originated in hand signing and esture and the possibilities of semantic meaning depend on our common Waiting for You (Lifesworn, ground or shared background knowledge and experienced based ineneral cultural knowledge or individual shared experiences For example we are out on a walk together and I point to the sky The semantic meaning of this The Mediterranean Billionaires Blackmail Bargain gesture depends on our commonround If we had just been talking about how A Christmas Seduction good the weather is today thisesture might express the meaning indeed the weather is The Pregnant Midwife great look how sunny is is If instead we had been having an existentialist conversation about how insignificant and fragile humanity is thisesture might instead have the meaning yes these heavens and the universe are so immense and we humans are nothing This explanation of semantic meaning applies to verbal linguistic utterances too though the full explanation is of course much complicated than this Tomasello lays out this basic account in the first chapterIn the second chapter Tomasello reviews scientific findings regarding communication in the The Simple Soul of Susan great ape species Apes are able to perform simple mind reading they know others have intentional states and can be sensitive to those So they are capable of intentional communication Speakers have a sense of the recipient s state and can address them accordingly and recipients know that the speaker s communicative motions are directed towards them specifically The majority of communication and the most sophisticated forms of communication all happen in their practices ofesturing and signing Apes can NetBeans IDE 8 Cookbook gesture wait for the recipient s reactions and modulate theirestures in response The vast majority of their Master Locksmithing gestures are used toet attention or to make demands Vocalizations in contrast express only basic emotions and are purely causal conseuences of being overtaken by certain emotions ie fear Out of their Born to Blog gestural repertoire certain cases ofestures to et others attention are the most sophisticated and the likely phylogenetic antecedent for human communication Apes can direct others attention "to objects in their environment there is some "objects in their environment There is some the speaker wants from the recipient and the speaker draws the recipient s attention to the object to et this done the speaker will adjust and change her Accelerated Learning gestures if the recipient doesn t respond according to her desires This communicative move implies a capacity for symbolism differentestures can be used to symbolize or represent some Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine, Eighth Edition, 2 Volume Set goal In contrast the majority ofestural communication lacks this symbolic dimension It mostly consists in apes performing the first steps of an action seuence and the recipient s recognition that this entire action is intended In that case there La investigación acerca de los orígenes evolutivos de la comunicación humana así como de su singularidad implica reconocer un vínculo fundamental el ue une la estructura básicamente cooperativa de nuestra comunicación con la estructura netamente cooperativa de las interacciones sociales de nuestra especie en contraposición a las de otros primates A partir de esta constatación y con el apoyo de sólidas investigaciones empíricas acerca de la comunicación The Dual Diagnosis Recovery Sourcebook gestual y vocal de losrandes simios y los infantes humanos. Enever we apprehend a case of language use eg
#AS I WRITE OUT THIS SENTENCE AND IT IS #I write out this sentence and it is to me the use eg as I write out this sentence and it is intelligible to me the and meaning of the language is based in this common Clashing Views on Abnormal Psychology ground we share with one another This commonround consists in all the objects and events that we have jointly attended to we have had shared experiences of these things recognize that we share them and intend for each other to recognize that we each intend for each other to share them Thus the meaning of this sentence I m writing is founded in intersubjective experiences it is not strictly I who am speaking but the possibilities of what I say are Writing Matters! - Student Book given by socialroups or partners of which I have been participant Poetically speaking it is humans coalesced via joint intentionality who speak through my tongue it is not any individual person not I or you who says my words I don t know what this means on the literal register yet and look forward to thinking about it Result of than 20 years of comparative experiment in apes and human psychology this book highlights the cooperative and collaborative roots of human thought and language in a manner that classical theoretical sociologists and anthropologists building and justifiying collective concepts as they were could only have dreamt of A book of the first importance in science and moral reasoning at large Kitap olduk a iyi organize edilmi ve isminin hakk n vererek sistematik bir ekilde insan ileti iminin k kenlerini sorguluyor Bununla birlikte eviri konusunda s k nt oldu unu d The book description is enough to know and it is stated with reater precision than I can muster I will be reading all of this man s titles Enough said A very convincing account of how the language might have emerged from a cognitivefunctional perspective The hypothesis is that the spoken language must have developed only after there was some kind of esture language which combined pointing and iconic estures Although other mammals in particular apes use estures to communicate experiments show that they all lack shared intention If Chomsky s discontinuity view lies on an end of a spectrum this book argues for an idea that lies on the opposite end I appreciate that the "arguments put forward in this book are experimentally backed which leaves little room for conceptual proposals It s ood to read "put forward in this book are experimentally backed which leaves little room for conceptual proposals It s ood to read opposing views on language evolution I have read a Doing Democracy in Indigenen Gemeinschaften great deal of what the formalists had to say about this matter and I started my reading list on the functionalists view with this book I was hoping that this book would addressenerativists argument against the continuity theory which this book adopts For example The Secrets of Boys generativists claim that communicative efficiency loses out to computational efficiency as observed in the universal property of displacement Generativists claim that the property of displacement taxes cognitive resources that are otherwise available and hence if language had evolved only to serve as a communicative tool we would expect linguistic operations to be performed with a minimal demand of cognitive resources Iuess it s the reader s job to connect the dots Excellent and original book on language in which he designates the sharing of intentions as its central hallmark I teach this book at the University of Tehran for my course on Human Communication this book actually revolutionized teaching human communication After attending this course the whole thinking system of my students change I have also translated this book into Persian I estimate that the research represented here might deserve 3 or even 4 stars but the author has not wrung a very readable text out of the materialThe main idea I ve Stop Whining--and Start Winning gotten from the first three chapters is that the distinguishing feature of human communication is Ficamente humana son adaptaciones biológicas para la interacción social cooperativa eneneral y ue su dimensión exclusivamente lingüística está constituida por convenciones y construcciones culturales creadas y transmitidas en el seno de determinados Charlie and the Christmas Kitty grupos culturales Por su valioso aporte para una comprensión evolutiva del lenguaje Los orígenes de la comunicación humanaanó en el año 2009 el Premio Eleanor Maccoby a la mejor obra sobre Psicología del Desarrollo otorgado por la American Psychological Associati.
Michael Tomasello ´ 6 readS no symbolization these steps are a literal part
OF THE ACTION SEUENCE FROM CHAPTERS 3 6 TOMASELLOthe action seuence From chapters 3 6 Tomasello into human communication Tomasello s thesis is that the singular major skill that humans Il sale della vita gained over apes and that makes all the difference in our language is our human capacity for joint intentionality When A and B form a jointoal A knows that B is aware of what A knows and of the fact that A knows what B is aware of Joint intentionality is defined by this recursive structure or back and forthing of each other s intentional states This capacity enables us to be especially sensitive to one another s background and to form My Favorite Things greater commonround This common round the shared background knowledge and experience that can serve as the communicative context in which simple estures and signs can possibly The Nine of Us gain complex meaningTomasello tells an evolutionary story for how we became capable of joint intentionality Apes are capable of collaborative activity but it is not properly coordinative They often hunt together asroups but they never form action plans beforehand and each ape s behavior is eared solely for the maximization of their individual benefit not for the benefit of the
Group This Comes Out InThis comes out in fact that when a roup succeeds in attaining its prey individuals will try their best to secure as much food as they can for solely themselves there is no motivation or cognitive capacity to distribute foods evenly Given this ineuity apes are each motivated to be the one who kills the prey first so they can have the biggest chance to secure the most food for themselves This makes it impossible for Hiding in the Bathroom groups to function in the most effective way to secure theiroal they decrease their chances as a The Perils of Pursuing a Prince (Desperate Debutantes, group for attaining prey Tomasello speculates that our evolutionary ancestors became capable of agreeing on sharing the spoils eually among themselves If this eual distribution isuaranteed then individuals in a The Barracks Thief and Selected Stories group would be freed to engage in the actions that would be most effective for theroup as a whole Mutually helpful behaviors become increasingly possible our ancestors could develop Becca and the Prisoners Cross (The Copernicus Legacy greater motivations to help one another out since this would benefit theroup and thereby themselves as a whole Apes are capable only of reuesting or like demanding from others Humans in contrast are capable of informing and sharing we can offer advice "And Information To Help One Another And We Enjoy Letting "information to help one another and we enjoy letting in on the things we appreciate so we can appreciate these things together This makes Gricean communicative intent possible I want you to notice that I purposefully intend to let you know about X It is not just that I want you to know about X This is the basis of joint intentionality It is the starting point for us to form strong coordinative The Commodore (Aubrey/Maturin, groups social identities and cultures and massive commonround which is all reuisite for the rich natural language distinctive of humans Parts of the book I have not summarized include Tomasello s review of the empirical literature on language formation in human infants which amounts to the ontogenetic story of language That is the focus of chapter 4 Tomasello also Dare Mighty Things gives an account of how our full blown natural languages might arise from the basicestural communication that he accounts for in the phylogenetic story That happens in chapter 6I d highly recommend this book to any interested why humans are distinct from other organisms and what makes our natural language categorically different from the communicative systems of other organisms The book is very easy to read and presents deep ideas Its various parts fit systematically together and the writing is rarely redundant I d like to write a bit on a conseuence of all of this which Tomasello briefly raises in the conclusion Wh. Tomasello muestra ue la comunicación convencional solo fue posible cuando los seres humanos ya dominaban esos The Texas Rangers Heiress Wife gestos naturales y poseían una infraestructura de intencionalidad compartida y la capacidad de aprendizaje cultural necesarias para crear convenciones comunicativas comprensibles para todo elrupo y transmitirlas a otros congéneres En franca contraposición a la noción chomskiana de ue el conocimiento lingüístico es innato Tomasello sostiene en cambio ue los aspectos fundamentales de la comunicación especí. .